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Toda a estante da Saraiva disponível para você em qualquer hora e qualquer lugar, inclusive pelo seu computador ou notebook, por meio do nosso leitor online. Ele chama para britagem, peneiramento e processo de lavagem. This method was applied to the enzymes amylase, carboxymethylcellulase, lipase, and laccase. Um resumo de frmulas, tabelas e outros dados que podes utilizar nos teus testes de Fsica-Qumicabom estudoScribd es red social de lectura y publicacin ms importante del mundo. Fitopatologia - Conceitos e Exercícios de Laboratório.
Matemática - Manual de Fórmulas Técnicas [K. R. Gieck] [Editora Hemus]. Luiz Henrique CarNog Luiz Henriquerow Mecatrônica na PUC Minas. Download. Help Center; less. pdf. Manual de Fórmulas Técnicas [K. R. Gieck] [Editora Hemus]. Pages Uploaded by. Tio do Computador. connect to download. Licença: Download gratuito para usuários registrados. A inscrição é Es la parte 32 de 39 del -Manual de Fórmulas Técnicas-, de Kurt Gieck y Reiner Gieck. Matemática manual de fórmulas técnicas. fórmulas técnicas [k. r. gieck] [editora hemus] (1). visualizações. Compartilhar; Gostei; Baixar. Compre o livro «Manual de Fórmulas Técnicas - Volume 2» de Kurt Gieck em foreclosurecleanupbusiness.info 20% de desconto imediato.
Carboxymethylcellulase was observed in a medium 0. Tween is a synthetic fat with a sorbitol chain sugar alcohol with five carbon instead of glycerol esterified with many fatty acids. The lipase enzyme hydrolyzes the ester linkage between the sorbitol carbon and the fatty acid carbonyl carbon to form sorbitol and free fatty acid.
The activity of phenol-oxidases laccase was detected in the medium containing 20 g of agar supplemented with 0.
The other reagents were solubilized pH 7. The PDA medium showed catalase activity. Catalase activity was observed by the formation of bubbles over or around the colony of the fungus.
Proteolytic activity or proteases was identified by the production of the gelatinase enzyme. Gelatinase was detected in test tubes containing a medium composed of 3. Other means to identify enzyme production consisted of using PDA medium Difco TM Potato-Dextrose-Agar with the addition of a specific compound for each enzyme detection.
According to GAMS et al.
The option to use the PDA medium plus specific compound instead of normal media was due to the fact that any laboratory could prepare the medium after acquiring the specific compound. In addition, several genera of fungi may grow on this medium.
Producing normal media requires the purchase of many products. The fungi R. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial scheme media, isolates, and enzymes , with six replications, each one consisting of a plastic Petri dish 90 mm diameter or glass test tube containing the medium and the fungus isolate.
Control treatmets were all the media not colonized by the fungi isolate. Criterion 1 - Calculation of the circular crown for amylase, carboxymethylcellulase, lipase, and laccase.
Gelatinase and catalase had their intensity symbols measured and transformed into a note scale. Criterion 2 - Calculation of the enzymatic index EI. The activity was estimated by the EI that expressed the relationship between the average diameter of the colony and the average diameter of the halo. Criterion 3 - Calculation of the Pz index. Criterion 4 - Calculation of the RA index. Criterion 5 - Using a note scale.
For the F. Normal media were superior to PDA when the gelatinase and lipase enzymes were detected.
In this case, the PDA medium plus specific compound was not suitable to identify the production of gelatinase and lipase enzymes. Amylase and laccase were not detected for F. Table 1. Extracellular enzymes produced by Fusarium solani f.
For S. As for R.
Lipase was not detected in the PDA medium. Amylase and carboxymethylcellulase were not produced in the tested media Table 1. Due to the larger amount of enzymes produced in the normal media and the easier observation of enzyme halos Table 1 , these media were superior to the PDA medium plus compound.
Evaluating the fungi and the catalase and gelatinase enzymes, criteria 1 and 5 were similar concerning the production of these enzymes.
For criterion 1, we applied statistical analysis to the data, while for criterion 5, statistical analysis was not possible. The difference in fungal production compared to the control treatment, except for the gelatinase enzyme in the S. According to criterion 1, lipase was the enzyme with the largest production area for the fungi F. The enzyme most produced by S. No amylase enzyme production area was detected for any fungi Table 2.
Table 2. Extracellular enzymes produced by the fungi Fusarium solani f. Criterion 1 - Calculation of the circular crown area. This formula was used to quantify the enzymes amylase, carboxymethylcellulase, lipase, and laccase.
For catalase, the intensity refers to the size of bubble formation and for gelatinase, the liquefaction or not of the medium;.
This index was applied to the enzymes amylase, carboxymethylcellulase, lipase, and laccase;. Measurement of the diameter of the halo formed around the colonies, represented by the note scale: 0 , no enzyme production; 1 , halo with diameter between mm; 2 , diameter between mm; 3 , diameter between mm; 4 , diameter between mm; e 5 , diameter higher than 30 mm.
This method was applied to the enzymes amylase, carboxymethylcellulase, lipase, and laccase. Considering only the fungus R. Criterion 1 showed differences in the activity of these enzymes Table 2.
Assessing only the fungus F. For criterion 4, the enzymes amylase, lipase, carboxymethylcellulase, and laccase had no significant activity for any fungus. This criterion contrasts with the other criteria Table 2. Criteria 2, 3, and 4 do not include methodologies to analyze the production of the enzymes catalase and gelatinase Table 2.
Criteria 1 and 5 showed proportional production intensity in the enzymes amylase, carboxymethylcellulase, lipase, and laccase when the fungus F. These same enzymes showed proportional production when criteria 1 and 3 analyzed the fungus S.
For R. The three phytopathogens cause important diseases known as root and collar rot and can attack plants from their early to adult stages, compromising the development of tissues and the absorption of water and mineral elements. We found variability among the fungi regarding the enzyme production.
The phytopathogens did not produce amylase. Evaluating the enzyme production by F. The amount of the first two enzymes produced by the fungi varied. Although S. Laccase, cellulase, pectinase, and xylanase enzymes were detected for R. Lignocellulosic material degradation involves a series of reactions, attributing to catalases different functions in lignin degradation ANDRADE, Higher enzymatic activity was observed in infected plants compared to healthy plants. Enzymes degrade the components present in the infected tissue of the host - the collar region of the plants -, providing gradually assimilable compounds for the pathogens.
Many papers report on media that produce a particular enzyme, and ways to reveal and evaluate enzyme production and disclose enzyme activity data. Standardization of methodologies would permit comparisons of results from different studies, which has not yet been proposed.
For fungi that did not grow in this medium, they used agar with CMC. After 30 minutes, the solution was discarded, and the cultures were washed with five mL of NaCl 0. The amylase produced by endophytic fungi isolated from Baccharis dracunculifolia D.
CUZZI et al. For Pyrenophora chaetomioides , amylase was detected in the NA medium plus 0. Laccase production was assessed for Aspergillus , Fusarium , Trichoderma , Cladosporium, and Penicillium in a PDA medium plus different concentrations of copper. According to the authors, the micronutrient copper is essential for fungal growth, acting as a cofactor for oxidases and oxygenases, including laccases.
However, the fact that the PDA medium is richer in nutrient than the normal media basal and poor medium used in the present study may be due to the low or absent enzymatic production of fungal pathogens in the PDA medium. Nonetheless, there are substances in the medium that alter enzymatic activity through the process of retroinhibition, in which the end product of the enzymatic activity inhibits the action of the enzyme itself NELSON; COX, For example, the basal medium used to detect the carboxymethylcellulase enzyme in the present study is different from that described by KRISHNAN et al.
BASTOS method to assess laccase was similar to that of the present study, differing only with respect to data report. In the present work, however, the symbols described different intensities in the medium, such as bubble size catalase and liquefaction of the medium gelatinase , besides the fact that the symbols were later transformed into notes to facilitate statistical data analysis.
The present study is not definitive in detecting extracellular enzymes produced in vitro by fungi RIOU et al. Currently, there is no consensus regarding which method to use to detect enzymes, as well as how to evaluate and report activity data of enzymes produced by phytopathogenic fungi. Based on the results of the present study, we suggest standardizing the composition of the specific media normal to produce enzymes and the methodology to detect their produced halos.
We also propose adopting criterion 1 as the standard procedure to calculate the area mm 2 of the enzymes amylase, carboxymethylcellulase, lipase, and laccase, in addition to using the scale of notes to quantify catalase and gelatinase.
These criteria had the best results when showing the smallest and greatest differences in enzyme production by fungi, as well as the production of each fungus compared to the control treatment.
Thus, in the future, it may be possible to compare studies on enzyme data among fungi. Plant Pathology. Burlington: Academic Press, Industrial applications of pectic enzymes: a review. Toda a estante da Saraiva disponível para você em qualquer hora e qualquer lugar, inclusive pelo seu computador ou notebook, por meio do nosso leitor online.
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